Generic Name: Dihydrostreptomycin Sulfate
Molecular Formula: C21H43N7O16S
CAS Number: 5490-27-7
Characteristics and Uses:
Dihydrostreptomycin Sulfate is an antibiotic effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with better efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and many Gram-negative bacteria. It is used for the treatment of acute infections caused by sensitive bacteria, such as respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, pharyngitis, bronchitis), urinary tract infections, actinomycosis, leptospirosis, bacterial gastroenteritis, and bacterial enteritis in pigs.
This product complies with the standards of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia, European Pharmacopoeia, United States Pharmacopoeia, and has been certified by the European CEP and the US FDA.
Store in a dry, cool, and well-ventilated area, protected from light and sealed tightly.
Dihydrostreptomycin Sulphate Introduction
Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the aminoglycoside class. It is commonly used in the treatment of various bacterial infections in both humans and animals. The drug is effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including the causative agents of respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and gastrointestinal infections. In this article, we will discuss the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, indications, and side effects of dihydrostreptomycin sulfate.
Mechanism of Action
Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate works by binding to the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting the synthesis of protein. The drug binds to the 30S subunit of the ribosome, causing misreading of the genetic code and ultimately leading to bacterial death. The drug has a broad spectrum of activity against both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. However, it is mainly used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis.
Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is therefore administered parenterally. The drug is rapidly distributed in the body fluids, and high concentrations are achieved in the kidneys, liver, and lungs. The drug is excreted primarily by the kidneys, with approximately 70% of the drug being excreted unchanged in the urine within 24 hours of administration.
Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate is used in the treatment of various bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, and sepsis. The drug is particularly effective against Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. It is also used in the treatment of tuberculosis in combination with other anti-tuberculosis medications.
Dosage and Administration
The dosage of dihydrostreptomycin sulfate varies depending on the indication and the severity of the infection. The drug is administered by injection, either intramuscularly or intravenously. The usual adult dose for the treatment of bacterial infections is 500 mg to 1 g every 12 hours. The dose may be adjusted depending on the severity of the infection, the age and weight of the patient, and the renal function of the patient. The duration of treatment may vary from a few days to several weeks, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate is generally well-tolerated, but like all antibiotics, it can cause side effects. The most common side effects include nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity can result in acute kidney injury and may be more common in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. Ototoxicity can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Neurotoxicity can cause muscle weakness, tremors, and seizures. Other less common side effects include gastrointestinal disturbances, hypersensitivity reactions, and hematologic abnormalities.
Contraindications and Precautions
Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug or to other aminoglycosides. The drug should also be used with caution in patients with pre-existing renal impairment, as it can cause nephrotoxicity. Patients receiving dihydrostreptomycin sulfate should be closely monitored for signs of nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, and neurotoxicity. The drug should be used with caution in pregnant women and nursing mothers, as it can cross the placenta and is excreted in breast milk.
With regard to storage, dihydrostreptomycin sulfate should be stored in a cool, dry place away from light and sealed tightly to prevent moisture absorption. It should also be kept out of reach of children and pets to avoid any potential hazards.
In conclusion, dihydrostreptomycin sulfate is a highly effective antibiotic used in the treatment of various bacterial infections in both animals and humans. With its broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, it has become a widely used antibiotic in the field of veterinary medicine. However, its use should be carefully monitored to avoid the development of resistance and ensure its continued efficacy in the treatment of bacterial infections.
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