ε-Polylysine Hydrochloride: Minimizing Antibiotic Resistance Transfer in Food Chains.


Antibiotic resistance is a global public health crisis that threatens our ability to combat bacterial infections effectively. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics in various sectors, including agriculture and food production, have contributed significantly to the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To address this critical issue, there is a growing need for alternative antimicrobial agents that can reduce the reliance on antibiotics while maintaining food safety standards. ε-Polylysine hydrochloride, a natural antimicrobial peptide derived from bacteria, has gained attention for its potential to minimize antibiotic resistance transfer in food chains. In this article, we will explore the challenges of antibiotic resistance in food production and the role of ε-polylysine hydrochloride in mitigating these challenges.

Antibiotic Resistance in Food Chains: Challenges and Implications

Antibiotics in Agriculture
Antibiotics have been widely used in agriculture for decades to promote animal growth, prevent disease, and treat infections. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry farming has contributed to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These resistant bacteria can contaminate animal products, such as meat, milk, and eggs, and enter the food supply chain.

Food processing facilities often handle a wide range of products, including raw meat, vegetables, and dairy. Cross-contamination of bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains, can occur during processing and packaging. This cross-contamination can lead to antibiotic resistance transfer within the food supply chain, increasing the risk of human exposure to resistant pathogens.

Human Health Risks
Consuming food contaminated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria can lead to foodborne illnesses that are challenging to treat with conventional antibiotics. This poses significant risks to human health, potentially resulting in severe infections and longer recovery times.

Environmental Impact
Antibiotics used in agriculture can enter the environment through runoff and manure, contributing to the spread of antibiotic resistance in soil and water. This environmental contamination further exacerbates the antibiotic resistance problem.

ε-Polylysine Hydrochloride: An Alternative Antimicrobial Agent

ε-Polylysine hydrochloride, derived from the bacterium Streptomyces albulus, has several properties that make it an attractive alternative to antibiotics for addressing antibiotic resistance in food chains:

Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity: ε-Polylysine hydrochloride exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Its broad-spectrum action allows it to control various pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains.

Natural and GRAS: ε-Polylysine hydrochloride is a natural compound considered safe for consumption. It has received the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status from regulatory agencies, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

Heat Stability: ε-Polylysine hydrochloride remains stable at high temperatures, making it suitable for use in food processing and cooking, where antibiotics may degrade.

Minimal Impact on Sensory Quality: When used at appropriate concentrations, ε-Polylysine hydrochloride has minimal impact on the taste, aroma, and appearance of food products.

Food Safety Enhancement: ε-Polylysine hydrochloride can be incorporated into food processing and packaging to inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, reducing the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses.

Applications of ε-Polylysine Hydrochloride in Food Chains

Livestock and Poultry Farming
In animal husbandry, ε-Polylysine hydrochloride can be used as a feed additive to control bacterial infections and promote animal health without relying on antibiotics. This reduces the selective pressure for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock and poultry.

Food Processing
Food processing facilities can incorporate ε-Polylysine hydrochloride as a natural preservative in various products, including meat, dairy, and processed foods. Its antimicrobial properties help prevent the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, reducing the risk of cross-contamination.

Packaging Materials
ε-Polylysine hydrochloride can be integrated into food packaging materials, such as films and coatings, to create antimicrobial barriers that inhibit microbial growth on the food's surface. This technology can extend the shelf life of packaged products and enhance food safety.

Cross-Contamination Prevention
Food processing equipment and surfaces can be treated with ε-Polylysine hydrochloride solutions to reduce the risk of cross-contamination during food production. This measure helps prevent the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within the food supply chain.

Post-Harvest Treatments
In agriculture, ε-Polylysine hydrochloride can be used in post-harvest treatments of fresh produce to inhibit the growth of bacteria responsible for spoilage and foodborne illnesses. This contributes to the safety and quality of fruits and vegetables.

Challenges and Considerations

While ε-Polylysine hydrochloride offers promising solutions to mitigate antibiotic resistance transfer in food chains, several challenges and considerations must be addressed:

Regulatory Approval: The use of ε-Polylysine hydrochloride in various food chain applications may require regulatory approvals and adherence to safety and efficacy standards. Collaboration between the food industry and regulatory agencies is essential.

Dosage Optimization: Determining the appropriate concentration of ε-Polylysine hydrochloride for specific food products and applications is crucial to ensure effective antimicrobial activity without compromising sensory quality.

Industry Adoption: Widespread adoption of ε-Polylysine hydrochloride in the food industry may require education and awareness campaigns to inform stakeholders about its benefits and safety.

Cost-Effectiveness: The cost-effectiveness of incorporating ε-Polylysine hydrochloride into food production and processing compared to traditional antibiotics needs to be assessed to encourage its adoption.


The rise of antibiotic resistance in food chains poses significant threats to human health, the environment, and the food industry. Reducing the use of antibiotics and finding alternative antimicrobial solutions are essential steps in addressing this challenge. ε-Polylysine hydrochloride, with its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, natural origin, and minimal impact on sensory quality, offers a promising alternative to antibiotics for minimizing antibiotic resistance transfer in food chains.

As the food industry continues to seek sustainable and safe solutions, ε-Polylysine hydrochloride's role in enhancing food safety and preserving public health is likely to expand. Collaborative efforts among researchers, regulatory agencies, and the food industry are essential to drive the adoption of this innovative antimicrobial agent and promote responsible antibiotic use in food production and processing.