ε-Polylysine Hydrochloride Potential Contributions to Global Food Resilience.


The world's population is steadily increasing, with projections indicating that it will reach nearly 10 billion by 2050. This growth places significant pressure on global food systems, demanding innovative solutions to ensure food security and resilience. ε-Polylysine hydrochloride, a natural cationic polymer with antimicrobial properties, is emerging as a promising candidate for enhancing food resilience. In this article, we explore the potential contributions of ε-polylysine hydrochloride to global food resilience, addressing challenges in food production, safety, and sustainability.

Global Food Resilience: Challenges and Necessities

Global food resilience refers to the ability of food systems to withstand shocks and stressors while maintaining the production and availability of safe, nutritious, and affordable food. Several challenges underscore the urgency of building food resilience:

Population Growth: The world's population is projected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050, increasing the demand for food production.

Climate Change: Climate-related events, such as extreme weather, droughts, and floods, threaten crop yields and food production.

Food Safety: Foodborne illnesses are a global concern, with contaminated food products affecting public health and straining healthcare systems.

Food Waste: Approximately one-third of food produced is lost or wasted, contributing to economic losses and environmental degradation.

Sustainable Agriculture: The shift towards sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural practices is essential to ensure the longevity of food production.

ε-Polylysine Hydrochloride: A Food-Grade Innovation

ε-Polylysine hydrochloride, commonly referred to as ε-PL, is a naturally derived cationic polymer produced through the fermentation of Streptomyces albulus. It has been utilized in the food industry as a natural antimicrobial agent and preservative, owing to its food-grade status and safety for human consumption.

Contributions of ε-PL to Global Food Resilience

Food Safety Enhancement

One of the primary contributions of ε-PL to global food resilience is its ability to enhance food safety. ε-PL acts as an effective antimicrobial agent, inhibiting the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds in food products. This reduces the risk of foodborne illnesses, ensuring that food remains safe for consumption, even under challenging conditions.

Shelf Life Extension

ε-PL is known for its capacity to extend the shelf life of various food products. By inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms, it helps reduce food waste, a critical factor in enhancing food resilience. Longer shelf life means that food products can be stored and distributed more efficiently, reducing economic losses and improving food availability.

Clean-Label and Sustainable Solutions

The clean-label movement, which emphasizes natural and minimally processed ingredients, aligns well with ε-PL's natural origin. As a clean-label ingredient, ε-PL supports the development of sustainable food products with reduced reliance on synthetic preservatives. Sustainable practices, such as reduced food waste and more efficient supply chains, contribute to global food resilience.

Allergen Management

In an era where food allergies are on the rise, allergen management is a crucial aspect of food safety. Cross-contamination with allergenic ingredients can have severe consequences for individuals with food allergies. ε-PL can be employed to inhibit the growth of allergenic microorganisms, reducing the risk of allergen cross-contamination in food production.

Reducing Salt and Sugar

Excessive salt and sugar consumption is associated with various health issues, including hypertension and diabetes. In response to these health concerns, there is a growing demand for reduced-sodium and reduced-sugar food products. ε-PL plays a role in achieving this by improving food safety and extending shelf life, allowing for reductions in salt and sugar content without compromising food quality.

Case Studies: ε-PL in Action

Several case studies illustrate the practical applications of ε-PL in enhancing global food resilience:

Dairy Product Preservation

Dairy products, such as yogurt and cheese, are susceptible to spoilage microorganisms. The incorporation of ε-PL has improved the safety and extended the shelf life of these products, reducing food waste and increasing food availability.

Fresh Produce Preservation

Fresh produce often faces challenges in maintaining its freshness during storage and transportation. Collaborative efforts involving ε-PL have led to the development of innovative packaging solutions that utilize ε-PL to inhibit microbial growth, thus extending the shelf life of fruits and vegetables.

Prepared Meals

Prepared meals are convenient but can contain high levels of salt and sugar. Collaborations between food scientists and the food industry have resulted in the use of ε-PL as an antimicrobial agent, allowing for the reduction of salt and sugar content while maintaining food safety and taste.

Allergen-Free Baking

Inclusive food production is essential, and ε-PL has played a crucial role in allergen-free baking. This application ensures that individuals with food allergies can enjoy a variety of baked goods without the risk of allergen cross-contamination.

Challenges and Considerations

While ε-PL offers numerous benefits for enhancing food resilience, several challenges and considerations must be addressed:

Cost: The cost of ε-PL may pose a challenge, particularly for small-scale food producers and economically disadvantaged regions. Collaborative efforts should seek cost-effective solutions to make ε-PL more accessible.

Taste and Texture: Maintaining the taste and texture of food products when reducing salt and sugar content can be challenging. Sensory evaluations and consumer acceptance are crucial factors in product development.

Education and Training: The successful implementation of ε-PL in food production requires education and training for food industry professionals and manufacturers to ensure its proper use.

Regulatory Compliance: Collaborative efforts must ensure that the use of ε-PL complies with relevant food safety and labeling regulations to maintain consumer trust and confidence.

Future Prospects

The future of ε-PL in enhancing global food resilience is promising:

Sustainable Initiatives: ε-PL aligns with sustainability goals by reducing food waste and contributing to the development of more sustainable food systems.

Clean-Label and Health-Conscious Menus: As the demand for clean-label and health-conscious foods grows, ε-PL's role in enhancing food resilience is likely to expand further.

Expansion to New Food Categories: Collaborative efforts are expected to explore the use of ε-PL in a wider range of food categories, including plant-based foods and snacks.

Global Implementation: The benefits of ε-PL can be extended to food production worldwide, offering consumers access to safer, more nutritious, and longer-lasting food products.


ε-Polylysine hydrochloride has the potential to significantly contribute to global food resilience by enhancing food safety, extending shelf life, managing allergens, and promoting sustainable food practices. As the world faces challenges related to population growth, climate change, and food safety, ε-PL serves as a valuable tool in building more resilient food systems. Collaborative efforts involving ε-PL can help reduce food waste, improve food availability, and address dietary concerns, ultimately ensuring that safe and nutritious food is accessible to all, even in the face of adversity. With ongoing research, innovation, and global implementation, ε-PL's role in enhancing global food resilience is poised for continued growth and impact.